Candidates must answer FOUR questions from at least TWO sections. Five questions
will be set for each section. The paper is split as follows:-
SECTION A (1789-1814)Theme. The French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.
Causes of the French Revolution including issues of human rights and gender; course
of the Revolution including the Declaration of Rights, effects on government, society,
economy, religion and governance: Napoleonic France and Europe; domestic and
foreign policy:- effects on governance, human rights and gender.
SECTION B (1815-1870): Theme:- Change and continuity in Europe.
The main forces:- the Vienna settlement and the Congress System: successes and
failures (1830; 1848-9;) imperialism; Russian, Austrian and Turkish nationalism and
French, German and Italian liberalism and their effects on the Ottoman Empire and
the Balkan States and how they affected international relations; challenges in terms of governance; reform and foreign policies of France, Russia and Austria and their
effects on domestic international relations. German and Italian unification.
SECTION C (1871-1919) Theme:- Industrialization and imperialism.
Background information on industrialization, reform movements and transport
particularly in Britain, France, Prussia and Russia: Imperialism:- theories, processes and events: the Berlin Conference; domestic and foreign challenges facing Bismarck and William II in Germany; challenges facing the Third Republic in France, e.g. the Paris Commune and other crises; challenges facing Russia 1881 – 1917.
Origins and events leading to World War I: causes e.g. the Alliance system,
militarism; World War I – key strategies and events of the war; effects of the war,
e.g. collapse of empires, women getting voting rights, emergence of Communism,
new drugs and medication methods, improvements in communications.
SECTION D (1919-1945): Theme. Democracy and dictatorship.
The Peace Settlement, Peace Treaties and the League of Nations:
Germany:- the Weimar Republic and the rise of Hitler (Nazi Germany).
Italy:- failure of post-war political systems and the rise of Fascism (Mussolini).
Spain: the Spanish Republic; the Spanish civil war and Franco.
The rise and development of communism in the USSR up to 1964.
Britain and France – continuity of democracy.
International tensions: the Great Depression and its impact on Europe.
Origins and events leading to World War II:- impact of Peace Treaties, arms race,
militarism, The Great Depression, nationalism, the alliances/pacts and weaknesses of the League of Nations, Appeasement.
World War II:- strategies, military technology and planning.
End of war and effects.
SECTION E (1945 – 1964): Theme. Globalisation and international co-operation:
Post war Europe -:the UN, Warsaw Pact, the EU economic growth and post war
reconstruction, Europe and Japan; the Marshall Plan, COMECON, and emergence of
decolonization movements. The Cold War – origins and manifestations; the intra and inter bloc conflicts in Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Cuba; Greece; Turkey, NATO, Warsaw Pact; The role of the UN in conflict resolution in Europe.