- Assess the relative importance of the various motives for the European partition of Africa. (1992)
- Explain why the sea-borne slave trade from either west or East Africa survived into the second half of the 19th century and how it was eventually stamped out. (1991)
3 .Compare and contrast the contributions of Tewodros II and Johannes IV to the revival of Ethiopia after 1855.
- Account for and illustrate the emergence of new states in the Niger Delta in the second half of the 19th century. Explain why these were short-lived.
- Describe and explain the political and social results of the presence of Christian missions in Buganda between 1879 and 1900.
- “British Intervention in Egypt in 1822 was the most important influence in the acceleration of the scramble for Africa” How far do you agree with this claim?
- With reference to Malawi or to West Africa, explain why and with what results African Christians developed independent churches in the last 20 years of this period.
- Explain the reactions of any two of the following African rulers to European pressure encroachment on their territory and sovereignty: Bai Bureh in Sierra Leone, Behanzin in Dahomey, Mkwawa of the Hehe, Mumia of the Wanga, Lewanika of Barotseland, and Lobengula of Matabeleland. What were the results of the policies of the chosen rulers?
- For what reasons did some African rulers welcome Christian missionaries to their territories and others ban them? Illustrate these different attitudes with specific examples from any part of tropical Africa.
- Why did direct rule “work” in northern Nigeria but not in Southern Nigeria?
- Describe and assess the effects of how the French administered their colonies in West Africa up to 1946.
- When and why did the French replace their policy of ‘assimilation’ by that of ‘association’ and how did the latter differ from the former.
- Compare and contrast methods used by Europeans to exploit or develop economically two different regions of Africa (East and Central Africa).
- How did some groups of Africans take advantage of the economic changes that occurred after the partition?
- Why was the transition from Slave Trade to Legitimate Trade achieved relatively quickly and
Successfully in Dahomey and the Niger Delta states (Dahomey, Brass, Opobo, Bonny, Itsekiri,
- How did the pattern of Trade and its control change in the second half of the 19th century in
Dahomey and the Niger Delta states.
Colonial methods used by the British and the French in their colonies with special reference to West Africa.
Definition: Association-spend time or have dealings with a special group of people, Assimilation-take and absorb, indirect rule-the Europeans were ruling but using the African chiefs to implement their rule and direct rule Europeans were actually ruling African territories.
According to Adu Boahen: assimilation meant a “colonial policy of transferring to the colonies the institutions, culture and economic organization of the imperial country, of moulding the colony in the image of the imperial country and turning its people into Europeans in all aspects except colour.”
QUESTION: Why did the French abandon assimilation for association?
Define: Association and assimilation
Explain how this method was implemented (i) who was in power, (ii) how did he rule the ordinary people, (iii) how did the Africans react, (iv) examples of areas where it was applied
Problems with assimilation
Assimilated people were expected to spread French education; a number of subjects would become citizens and enjoy rights of French political and judicial institutions. The French carried assimilation further than the British.
Fell into two groups: Those who advocated personal assimilation of administered peoples and those who advocated for administrative, political or economic identity between mother country and the colony. Take and absorb, equality before the law, and accept Africans.