African History (Pre-Colonial and Colonial days)

SHOW HOW THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRADE BROUGHT POLITICAL

Stanley Henry Morton

suppression of the slave trade

the beginning of the European partition of Africa

The development and importance of house system in the transition from slave trade to legitimate trade

the flag followed the cross

the maji maji rising and ndebele shona uprising

to what extent were missionaries successful in Buganda

TRACE THE ORIGINS

what were concessionary companies

why did the British adopt a policy of Indirect rule in Northern Nigeria and parts of other colonies

Why did the efforts of Samori Touré to resist the European conquest of his territory fail

why did the partition of Africa occur in the last quarter of the 19th century and not before

Why was Buganda the most powerful interlacustrine state in East Africa

Why was King Leopold

Why was Samouri Toure able to resist the French invasion for so long and why was he defeated

WHY WAS THE BERLIN WEST AFRICA CONFERENCE CALLED IN 1884

WHY WERE EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS MORE WILLING TO SUPPORT IMPERIALIST POLICIES IN THE LATER YEARS OF THE 19TH CENTURY

~$fference between assimilation and association – Copy

~$y did the British adopt a policy of Indirect rule in Northern Nigeria and parts of other colonies

african independent churches

African religious responses to colonialism – Copy

ANALYZE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HOUSE SYSTEM AND ANALYZE ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE STATES OF THE NIGER DELTA

ASSESS THE CONTRIBUTION OF TEWODROS II TO THE REVIVAL OF ETHIOPIA

colonial rule and missionaries

compare and contrast sokoto and mandinka

Compare and Contrast the Maji

compare and contrast umar and the mahdi

compare maji-maji and ndebele

Contrast and compare the organizations of Mandinka and Oyo state

describe the methods used by Chaka to build and expand the Zulu kingdom

developments in trade

difference between assimilation and association – Copy

Discuss the career and assess the achievement of Menelik II as the ruler of Ethiopia

DISCUSS THE CAREER AND ASSESS THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF MENELIK II AS RULER OF ETHIOPIA

DISCUSS THE VIEW THAT

effects of missionary work

explain the growth of African independent churches

EXPLAIN WITH EXAMPLES

formal and informal empires

HOW AND WHY WERE DAHOMEY AND THE NIGER DELTA STATES ABLE TO MAKE THE TRANSITION FROM THE SLAVE TRADE QUICKLY AND SUCCESSFULLY

HOW SUCCESSFUL WERE THE SOUTHERN NIGERIAN PRODUCERS OF VEGETABLE PRODUCTS

IDENTIFY THE FACTORS THAT ENABLED SAMOURI TOURE TO BUILD THE MANDINKA EMPIRE AND ANALYZE THE MAIN FEATURES OF HIS STATE

king Leopold’s actions

ngoni invasions

Non economic factors were of little importance in bringing about the scramble for Africa

ONE OF THE 19TH CENTURY GREATEST FIGURES

Outline the careers and show the importance in African history of any two of the following

question on prempe I of Asante – Copy

question on prempe I of Asante

Question on tewodros

question on trans-atlantic slave trade

question on trans-atlantic slave trade2

reasons and methods for the abolition of the slave trade

resistance to colonial encroachment

samouri’s resistance

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African History E Books

Zulu – Saul David

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Warrior People Of East Africa 1840-1900

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Uvin – Aiding Violence; the Development Enterprise in Rwanda (1998)

Trade and Empire in the Atlantic

Themes in West African History

The Washing Of The Spears – Donald R Morris

The Turning Point in Africa British Colonial Policy 1938-48

The Tragic State of Congo From Decolonization to Dictatorship

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The limits of humanitarian intervention genocide in Rwanda

The New South Africa

the Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade

The Cambridge History of Africa (1905-1940)

The Boer Wars 1898-1902

The Boer Wars 1836-98

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The Boer War Historiography and Annotated Bibliography (Bibliographies of Battles and Leaders)

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Researching Conflict in Africa Insights And Experiences

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Rorkes Drift 1879 Pinned like rats in a hole

Reid – A History of Modern Africa, 1800 to the Present, 2nd ed. (2012)

Peterson – Me against My Brother at War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda (2000)

Pears – Remnants of Empire in Algeria and Vietnam; Women, Words, and War (2004)

Great battles Spion Kop. The Second Boer War

Congo Exploration, Reform, and a Brutal Legacy (Exploration of Africa, the Emerging Nations.)

Atlantic History – A Critical

Atlas of African-American History, Revised Edition

Copper Empire Mining and the Colonial State in Northern Rhodesia, c.1930-64 (Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies)

How Colonialism Preempted Modernity in Africa

HRW – The Curse of Gold; Democratic Republic of Congo (2005)

Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Africa From Slavery Days to Rwandan Genocide

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Glassman – War of Words, War of Stones; Racial Thought and Violence in Colonial Zanzibar (2011)

Colenso 1899 The Boer War in Natal

Algeria (Africa Continent in the Balance)

African History: A Very Short Introduction, John Parker & Richard Rathbone

Canada, the Congo Crisis, and UN Peacekeeping, 1960-64

Gender and Decolonization in the Congo The Legacy of Patrice Lumumba

Orji – Ethnic and Religious Conflict in Africa (2008)

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Frontiersmen Warfare In Africa Since 1950 (Warfare and History)

Cambridge History of Africa

Africa and Africans

A History of Modern Africa 1800 to the Present, 2nd Edition (Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World)

Butler – Copper Empire (2007)

Eyes to the South French Anarchists & Algeria

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Mohamed Fekini and the Fight to Free Libya (Italian and Italian American Studies)

Ethiopia in the Modern World (Explorations of Africa)

British Infantryman in South Africa 1877-81

British Infantryman in South Africa 1877-81 (2)

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Medieval Africa, 1250-1800 – Roland Oliver & Anthony Atmore

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Imagining the Congo The International Relations of Identity

Ian Knight – The Zulu War 1879 (Essential Histories #56)

REASONS FOR AND THE RESULTS OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF RAILWAYS IN EITHER WEST OR EAST AFRICA

  1. The British wanted their presence to be felt.
  2. Strategic reasons- transport of goods,
  3. benefit Europeans traders,
  4. boost the economy,
  5. further exploit African resources (sisal coffee),
  6. moving troops into the interior.
  7. The Germans wanted opportunities for trade.

Results

  1. Transport immigrant settlers,
  2. steady source of revenue,
  3. communications improved,
  4. able to supply sea ports,
  5. helped the flow of money e.g. Uganda. Successful in coffee

 

A level history Tropical Africa 9021/13 1998

  1. Why was the transition from the slave trade to legitimate trade achieved successfully in Dahomey and the Niger Delta states?
  2. Outline the careers and explain the importance in African History of two of the following: Jaja of Opobo; Lewanika, King of the Lozi; Mirambo of the Nyamwezi; Mwanga I of Buganda.
  3. Explain Samouri Toure’s long resistance against the French and his final defeat in 1898.
  4. What were the results for east Africa and its peoples of the establishment of the capital of the Omani sultanate in Zanzibar?
  5. What do you understand by the term ‘informal empire’? When, how and why was this replaced by ‘formal empire’?
  6. Analyze the factors which account for the spread of Islam and Christianity in either East or West Africa between 1885 and 1914.
  7. With reference to the Ndebele-shona Rising and the Maji Maji Rising identify the main features of post-pacification primary resistance movements. Compare and contrast the results of the two risings, both for Africans and the colonial powers.
  8. “Tewodros II, emperor of Ethiopia, was a ruler with a vision.” What was his vision and why did he fail to turn it into reality?
  9. Explain the emergence, and assess the achievements, of nationalist organizations and activities amongst the educated elite in British and French colonies in West Africa before 1914.
  10. When and why did the British adopt the system of Indirect Rule to administer most of their African colonies? What were the strengths and weaknesses of this system?

A level history 9155/4 Tropical Africa 2003

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  1. Account for the relatively quick transition from the slave trade to legitimate trade in West Africa.
  2. What effects did the Nguni incursions have in Central Africa during the period 1855 to 1914?
  3. Account for Samouri Toure’s long resistance to French imperialism. Why he was finally defeated in 1898?
  4. Explain Buganda’s position as the most powerful interlacustrine state in East Africa.
  5. What social, political and economic conditions in Europe and Africa encouraged the Partition of Africa?
  6. Why and how was Ethiopia successful in resting external threats to her independence?
  7. Examine the activities of Christian missionaries in Malawi in the period 1860-1914. Show how these activities affected the people of Malawi.
  8. Compare and contrast the causes of the Ndebele – Shona (1896-1897) and the Maji Maji (1905 -1907) Uprisings. What were the effects of these Uprisings on the indigenous people?
  9. “The British system of indirect rule had more advantages than disadvantages as compared to assimilation in governing Africa”. Discuss.
  10. Explain the development of early nationalist activities among the educated elite in West Africa up to 1914

 A level history 9155/4 Tropical Africa 1996

  1. How did trade between west Africa and Europe change during this period? Show how and with what success different peoples responded to the change.
  2. Analyze the impact of the Ngoni invasions on Central and East Africa.
  3. Who were the Creoles in West Africa? Assess and explain their achievements in this period.
  4. Analyze the aims and the nature of Lobengula’s response to European demands and threats and explain why he eventually lost his kingdom to the British.
  5. Why was Menelik II successful and Samouri Toure unsuccessful in resisting European encroachment and invasion?
  6. “The objectives and policies of European powers in Africa changed dramatically between 1875 and 1885”. Show how and why this happened.
  7. Explain the outbreak and assess the success of the Mahdists movement in Sudan.
  8. With reference to its impact in two different regions between 1880 and 1914 show how Christianity was both a destructive and a constructive force in Africa.
  9. “To protest against colonial rule before 1914 Africans turned to religion rather than politics”. How far is this claim justified?
  10. Analyze the similarities and the differences between British and French methods of colonial administration in this period.(1855-1914)

Characteristics of the French colonial policies in Africa

images

Assimilation

The initial aim of the system of ‘assimilation’ was to absorb as many Africans as possible into French culture and turn Africans into ‘black Frenchmen’. Those Africans who met specified requirements would be granted French citizenship and be accepted as equal partners of the French. In practice it was so difficult for Africans to meet the stringent requirements that very few succeeded in qualifying for French citizenship. The exception was in the 4 Senegalese Communes of St. Louis, Dakar, Rufisque and Goree, where birth was the only qualification required. Under the system of ‘association’ Africans would be associated with Frenchmen in administering French colonies, but not as equal partners. The French authorities appointed educated Africans in preference to traditional African chiefs to posts of responsibility. Only when educated Africans were not available would traditional rulers be used, and then only in low-ranking posts and as appointees of the French, not as of right.

French-1904

When and why the  French changed to association :

Change began in about 1900 for the following reasons:

1.the high cost of maintaining the system of assimilation;

2.the realization that, in time, Africans might outnumber Frenchmen in the French Assembly;

3.French businessmen disliked increasing competition from Africans working on equal terms;

4.opposition of Africans to becoming ‘black Frenchmen’, losing their own culture and traditions.