- The British wanted their presence to be felt.
- Strategic reasons- transport of goods,
- benefit Europeans traders,
- boost the economy,
- further exploit African resources (sisal coffee),
- moving troops into the interior.
- The Germans wanted opportunities for trade.
- Transport immigrant settlers,
- steady source of revenue,
- communications improved,
- able to supply sea ports,
- helped the flow of money e.g. Uganda. Successful in coffee
- Why was the transition from the slave trade to legitimate trade achieved successfully in Dahomey and the Niger Delta states?
- Outline the careers and explain the importance in African History of two of the following: Jaja of Opobo; Lewanika, King of the Lozi; Mirambo of the Nyamwezi; Mwanga I of Buganda.
- Explain Samouri Toure’s long resistance against the French and his final defeat in 1898.
- What were the results for east Africa and its peoples of the establishment of the capital of the Omani sultanate in Zanzibar?
- What do you understand by the term ‘informal empire’? When, how and why was this replaced by ‘formal empire’?
- Analyze the factors which account for the spread of Islam and Christianity in either East or West Africa between 1885 and 1914.
- With reference to the Ndebele-shona Rising and the Maji Maji Rising identify the main features of post-pacification primary resistance movements. Compare and contrast the results of the two risings, both for Africans and the colonial powers.
- “Tewodros II, emperor of Ethiopia, was a ruler with a vision.” What was his vision and why did he fail to turn it into reality?
- Explain the emergence, and assess the achievements, of nationalist organizations and activities amongst the educated elite in British and French colonies in West Africa before 1914.
- When and why did the British adopt the system of Indirect Rule to administer most of their African colonies? What were the strengths and weaknesses of this system?
- Account for the relatively quick transition from the slave trade to legitimate trade in West Africa.
- What effects did the Nguni incursions have in Central Africa during the period 1855 to 1914?
- Account for Samouri Toure’s long resistance to French imperialism. Why he was finally defeated in 1898?
- Explain Buganda’s position as the most powerful interlacustrine state in East Africa.
- What social, political and economic conditions in Europe and Africa encouraged the Partition of Africa?
- Why and how was Ethiopia successful in resting external threats to her independence?
- Examine the activities of Christian missionaries in Malawi in the period 1860-1914. Show how these activities affected the people of Malawi.
- Compare and contrast the causes of the Ndebele – Shona (1896-1897) and the Maji Maji (1905 -1907) Uprisings. What were the effects of these Uprisings on the indigenous people?
- “The British system of indirect rule had more advantages than disadvantages as compared to assimilation in governing Africa”. Discuss.
- Explain the development of early nationalist activities among the educated elite in West Africa up to 1914
- How did trade between west Africa and Europe change during this period? Show how and with what success different peoples responded to the change.
- Analyze the impact of the Ngoni invasions on Central and East Africa.
- Who were the Creoles in West Africa? Assess and explain their achievements in this period.
- Analyze the aims and the nature of Lobengula’s response to European demands and threats and explain why he eventually lost his kingdom to the British.
- Why was Menelik II successful and Samouri Toure unsuccessful in resisting European encroachment and invasion?
- “The objectives and policies of European powers in Africa changed dramatically between 1875 and 1885”. Show how and why this happened.
- Explain the outbreak and assess the success of the Mahdists movement in Sudan.
- With reference to its impact in two different regions between 1880 and 1914 show how Christianity was both a destructive and a constructive force in Africa.
- “To protest against colonial rule before 1914 Africans turned to religion rather than politics”. How far is this claim justified?
- Analyze the similarities and the differences between British and French methods of colonial administration in this period.(1855-1914)
The initial aim of the system of ‘assimilation’ was to absorb as many Africans as possible into French culture and turn Africans into ‘black Frenchmen’. Those Africans who met specified requirements would be granted French citizenship and be accepted as equal partners of the French. In practice it was so difficult for Africans to meet the stringent requirements that very few succeeded in qualifying for French citizenship. The exception was in the 4 Senegalese Communes of St. Louis, Dakar, Rufisque and Goree, where birth was the only qualification required. Under the system of ‘association’ Africans would be associated with Frenchmen in administering French colonies, but not as equal partners. The French authorities appointed educated Africans in preference to traditional African chiefs to posts of responsibility. Only when educated Africans were not available would traditional rulers be used, and then only in low-ranking posts and as appointees of the French, not as of right.
When and why the French changed to association :
Change began in about 1900 for the following reasons:
1.the high cost of maintaining the system of assimilation;
2.the realization that, in time, Africans might outnumber Frenchmen in the French Assembly;
3.French businessmen disliked increasing competition from Africans working on equal terms;
4.opposition of Africans to becoming ‘black Frenchmen’, losing their own culture and traditions.