African History E Books

Zulu – Saul David

West African Kingdoms Empires Of Gold and Trade (Ancient Civilizations)


Warrior People Of East Africa 1840-1900

Vandals, Romans and Berbers New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa

Uvin – Aiding Violence; the Development Enterprise in Rwanda (1998)

Trade and Empire in the Atlantic

Themes in West African History

The Washing Of The Spears – Donald R Morris

The Turning Point in Africa British Colonial Policy 1938-48

The Tragic State of Congo From Decolonization to Dictatorship

The Strategy of Antelopes Rwanda After the Genocide

The Soviet Union in the Horn of Africa The Diplomacy of Intervention and Disengagement (Cambridge Russian, Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies)

The Congo Wars Conflict, Myth and RealityThe Decolonization of Africa

The End of Barbary Terror Americas 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa

The First Helicopter War Logistics and Mobility in Algeria, 1954-1962

The Great Boer War


The Great Power Struggle in East Asia, 1944-50 Britain, America and Post-War Rivalry (Global Conflict and Security Since 1945)

The History of Northern Africa (The Britannica Guide to Africa)

The Hot Cold War The USSR in Southern Africa

The Italian Invasion of Abyssinia 1935-36

The limits of humanitarian intervention genocide in Rwanda

The New South Africa

the Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade

The Cambridge History of Africa (1905-1940)

The Boer Wars 1898-1902

The Boer Wars 1836-98


The Boer War South Africa 1899-1902 (Battles and Histories)

The Boer War

The Boer War Historiography and Annotated Bibliography (Bibliographies of Battles and Leaders)

Stearns – Dancing in the Glory of Monsters; the Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa (2011)

South Africa in World History

South Africa at war White power and the crisis in southern Africa

Researching Conflict in Africa Insights And Experiences

Revolutionary Path

Rorkes Drift 1879 Pinned like rats in a hole

Reid – A History of Modern Africa, 1800 to the Present, 2nd ed. (2012)

Peterson – Me against My Brother at War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda (2000)

Pears – Remnants of Empire in Algeria and Vietnam; Women, Words, and War (2004)

Great battles Spion Kop. The Second Boer War

Congo Exploration, Reform, and a Brutal Legacy (Exploration of Africa, the Emerging Nations.)

Atlantic History – A Critical

Atlas of African-American History, Revised Edition

Copper Empire Mining and the Colonial State in Northern Rhodesia, c.1930-64 (Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies)

How Colonialism Preempted Modernity in Africa

HRW – The Curse of Gold; Democratic Republic of Congo (2005)

Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Africa From Slavery Days to Rwandan Genocide

Black Death AIDS in Africa

Pacification in Algeria, 1956-1958

Glassman – War of Words, War of Stones; Racial Thought and Violence in Colonial Zanzibar (2011)

Colenso 1899 The Boer War in Natal

Algeria (Africa Continent in the Balance)

African History: A Very Short Introduction, John Parker & Richard Rathbone

Canada, the Congo Crisis, and UN Peacekeeping, 1960-64

Gender and Decolonization in the Congo The Legacy of Patrice Lumumba

Orji – Ethnic and Religious Conflict in Africa (2008)

Nigeria 1880 To the Present The Struggle, the Tragedy, the Promise (Exploration of Africa the Emerging Nations)

Frontiersmen Warfare In Africa Since 1950 (Warfare and History)

Cambridge History of Africa

Africa and Africans

A History of Modern Africa 1800 to the Present, 2nd Edition (Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World)

Butler – Copper Empire (2007)

Eyes to the South French Anarchists & Algeria

New Encyclopedia of Africa

Mohamed Fekini and the Fight to Free Libya (Italian and Italian American Studies)

Ethiopia in the Modern World (Explorations of Africa)

British Infantryman in South Africa 1877-81

British Infantryman in South Africa 1877-81 (2)

Borstelmann – Apartheid’s Reluctant Uncle; the United States and Southern Africa in the Early Cold War (1993)

Boer War 1899-1902

Boer Commando 1876-1902

Dutch and Portuguese in Western Africa Empires, Merchants and the Atlantic System, 1580-1674 (Atlantic World)

Empires of Medieval West Africa Ghana Mali Songhay

Empires of Medieval West Africa Ghana, Mali, and Songhay

Encyclopedia of African History

Medieval Africa, 1250-1800 – Roland Oliver & Anthony Atmore

Medieval Africa, 1250 – 1800

Imagining the Congo The International Relations of Identity

Ian Knight – The Zulu War 1879 (Essential Histories #56)

World War History E books (1914 -1918)

End of World War One

Altered memories of the Great War Divergent narratives of Britain, Australia, New Zealand and Canada

Adams-World War I

A Teachers Guide to World War One A History in Documents (Pages from History)

[N.M Christie] Access to History – Gas Attack – The Canadians at Ypre, 1915

WW I – Armies in the Balkans 1914_

World War I

World War I. Almanac

World War I Trench Warfare (1) 1914-16 (Elite) (Pt.1)

World War I Gas Warfare Tactics & Equipment

The First World War – An Illustrated History

World War I A History in Documents

Cambrai 1917 – The birth of armoured warfare

Citizen Soldiers The Liverpool Territorials in the First World War (Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern Warfare)

Concise Historical Atlas of the First World War (2005)

Us Marine Corps In World War I (1917-1918)

Conservative Party and Anglo-German Relations, 1905-1914

War Planning 1914

Warfare and belligerence Perspectives in First World War Studies

War, Memory, and the Politics of Humor The Canard enchaine and World War

IThe British Army on the Western Front 1916

World War I – Stewart Ross

World War I (1)

World War I (2)

Tommy – Richard HolmesThe British Army in World War I The Western Front 1916-18downloadTime-Life Books – The World in Arms, AD 1900-1925 (TimeFrame #19)

The British Army 1914-18

Bull-World War I Trench Warfare (1) 1914-16 (Elite) (Pt.1)

Germany and the Causes of the First World War

German Naval Strategy 1856-1888 Forerunners to Tirpitz (Noval Policy and History Series)

British Tommy 1914-18

Geoffrey Jukes – First World War; Volume 1 the Eastern Front 1914-1918

The Great War An Imperial History

Backs to the Wall A larrikin on the Western Front

Pyrrhic Victory French Strategy and Operations in the Great War

The March to the Marne The French Army 1871-1914

Amiens 1918 The Black Day of the German Army

British Dreadnought Vs German Dreadnought Jutland 1916

rivalry and accord 1870-1914

The First World War

The Spirit of 1914 Militarism, Myth, and Mobilization in Germany

Gas attack! The Canadians at Ypres, 1915 (The access to history series)

The World War I Reader

Simkins Peter – The First World War

The Great War 1914-1918

Atlas of the First World War, The Complete History 2nd (1994)

Frank Furedi – First World War – Still No End in Sight (2014)

First World War: A Very Short Introduction, The, Michael Howard (2007, Oxford University Press) ISBN 9780199205592

POWs and the Great War Captivity on the Eastern Front (Legacy of the Great War)

The Kaiser New Research on Wilhelm IIs Role in Imperial Germany

First World War, The – Gilbert, Martin

Peter Simkins – The First World War Vol. 3; The Western Front 1917-1918

The Home Front Encyclopedia United States, Britain, and Canada in World Wars I and II

The First World War The War to End All Wars


DK Eyewitness Books World War I by Simon Adams

Mustafa Aksakal – The Ottoman Road to War in 1914 (2010)

Into the Silence_ The Great War, Mallory, and the Conquest of Everest – Wade Davis

Coventry in the Great War by Leonard Markham

The Great War, An Imperial History (2004)

Germany’s High Sea Fleet in the – Admiral Reinhard Scheer

Great War, 1914-1918 (Warfare and History)

Defeat in Detail The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912-1913

Development of British Naval Thinking Essays in Memory of Bryan Ranft (Cass Series–Naval Policy and History)

Hew Strachan – The First World War in Africa (2004)

Michael Hickey – First World War; Volume 4 the Mediterranean Front 1914-1923

An Introduction to the History of Western by James Harvery Robinson

The First World War in Africa

Ian Castle, Peter Dennis – The Zeppelin Base Raids – Germany 1914

Ian Cawood – First World War (2002)

The Great War at Sea 1914-1918 – Richard Hough

Keith Robbins – The First World War (1985)

Blood in the Argonne, The “Lost Battalion” of World War I – Alan D Gaff

Michael Howard -First World War (2003)Hitler’s First War Adolf Hitler, the Men of the List Regiment, and the First World War

‘A’ Level Tropical History Questions


  1. Assess the relative importance of the various motives for the European partition of Africa. (1992)
  2. Explain why the sea-borne slave trade from either west or East Africa survived into the second half of the 19th century and how it was eventually stamped out. (1991)

3              .Compare and contrast the contributions of Tewodros II and Johannes IV to the revival of Ethiopia after 1855.

  1. Account for and illustrate the emergence of new states in the Niger Delta in the second half of the 19th century. Explain why these were short-lived.
  2. Describe and explain the political and social results of the presence of Christian missions in Buganda between 1879 and 1900.
  3. “British Intervention in Egypt in 1822 was the most important influence in the acceleration of the scramble for Africa” How far do you agree with this claim?
  4. With reference to Malawi or to West Africa, explain why and with what results African Christians developed independent churches in the last 20 years of this period.
  5. Explain the reactions of any two of the following African rulers to European pressure encroachment on their territory and sovereignty: Bai Bureh in Sierra Leone, Behanzin in Dahomey, Mkwawa of the Hehe, Mumia of the Wanga, Lewanika of Barotseland, and Lobengula of Matabeleland. What were the results of the policies of the chosen rulers?
  6. For what reasons did some African rulers welcome Christian missionaries to their territories and others ban them? Illustrate these different attitudes with specific examples from any part of tropical Africa.
  7. Why did direct rule “work” in northern Nigeria but not in Southern Nigeria?
  8. Describe and assess the effects of how the French administered their colonies in West Africa up to 1946.
  9. When and why did the French replace their policy of ‘assimilation’ by that of ‘association’ and how did the latter differ from the former.
  10. Compare and contrast methods used by Europeans to exploit or develop economically two different regions of Africa (East and Central Africa).
  11. How did some groups of Africans take advantage of the economic changes that occurred after the partition?
  12. Why was the transition from Slave Trade to Legitimate Trade achieved relatively quickly and

Successfully in Dahomey and the Niger Delta states (Dahomey, Brass, Opobo, Bonny, Itsekiri,

and Kalabari?)

  1. How did the pattern of Trade and its control change in the second half of the 19th century in

Dahomey and the Niger Delta states.

Colonial methods used by the British and the French in their colonies with special reference to West Africa.

Definition: Association-spend time or have dealings with a special group of people, Assimilation-take and absorb, indirect rule-the Europeans were ruling but using the African chiefs to implement their rule and direct rule Europeans were actually ruling African territories.

According to Adu Boahen: assimilation meant a “colonial policy of transferring to the colonies the institutions, culture and economic organization of the imperial country, of moulding the colony in the image of the imperial country and turning its people into Europeans in all aspects  except colour.”


QUESTION: Why did the French abandon assimilation for association?
Define: Association and assimilation

Explain how this method was implemented (i) who was in power, (ii) how did he rule the ordinary people, (iii) how did the Africans react, (iv) examples of areas where it was applied

Problems with assimilation

Assimilated people were expected to spread French education; a number of subjects would become citizens and enjoy rights of French political and judicial institutions.  The French carried assimilation further than the British.

Fell into two groups: Those who advocated personal assimilation of administered peoples and those who advocated for administrative, political or economic identity between mother country and the colony. Take and absorb, equality before the law, and accept Africans.


A level history Tropical Africa 9021/13 1998

  1. Why was the transition from the slave trade to legitimate trade achieved successfully in Dahomey and the Niger Delta states?
  2. Outline the careers and explain the importance in African History of two of the following: Jaja of Opobo; Lewanika, King of the Lozi; Mirambo of the Nyamwezi; Mwanga I of Buganda.
  3. Explain Samouri Toure’s long resistance against the French and his final defeat in 1898.
  4. What were the results for east Africa and its peoples of the establishment of the capital of the Omani sultanate in Zanzibar?
  5. What do you understand by the term ‘informal empire’? When, how and why was this replaced by ‘formal empire’?
  6. Analyze the factors which account for the spread of Islam and Christianity in either East or West Africa between 1885 and 1914.
  7. With reference to the Ndebele-shona Rising and the Maji Maji Rising identify the main features of post-pacification primary resistance movements. Compare and contrast the results of the two risings, both for Africans and the colonial powers.
  8. “Tewodros II, emperor of Ethiopia, was a ruler with a vision.” What was his vision and why did he fail to turn it into reality?
  9. Explain the emergence, and assess the achievements, of nationalist organizations and activities amongst the educated elite in British and French colonies in West Africa before 1914.
  10. When and why did the British adopt the system of Indirect Rule to administer most of their African colonies? What were the strengths and weaknesses of this system?

A level history Tropical Africa 2004 9155/04

  1. Illustrate the extent to which ‘a blend of religion and economics’ enabled Samouri Toure to build the Mandinka state between 1857 and 1881.
  2. Make a critical analysis of the career and achievements of Tippu Tip.
  3. What were the aims of Tewodros II when he came to power? How successful was he in his attempts to achieve them?
  4. Show how and why Buganda collaborated with the British between 1875 and 1914.
  5. Give reasons for the establishment of Chartered Companies in East Africa at the time of the Partition. Why did they fail?
  6. Why did some African leaders accept Christian missionaries into their territories while others resisted them during this period? Illustrate your answer with specific examples.
  7. “To protest against colonial rule before 1914 in Central Africa, Africans turned to religion rather than politics” do you agree?
  8. Assess the impact of communications in both East and West Africa before 1914.
  9. Analyze the nature and extent to which the policy of Assimilation was pursued by Britain in her West African colonies during this period.
  10. How far is the term ‘nationalism’ a valid description of the political activities of the educated elite in West Africa before 1914?

A level history 9155/4 Tropical Africa 2002

  1. Explain why the sea-borne slave trade survived into the second half of the 19th century in West Africa and how it was eventually stamped out.
  2. Assess the importance of any two of the following in the history of their regions: King Glele of Dahomey; King Lobengula of the Ndebele state; Mwanga Kabaka of Buganda; Prempeh I of Asante.
  3. How justified is the view that Menelik II was solely responsible for the modernization of Ethiopia?
  4. Why was Buganda the most successful interlacustrine kingdom in the second half of the 19th century?
  5. “The flag followed the cross”. Is this an accurate assessment of the European occupation of either East or Central Africa?
  6. Consider the claim that the establishment of European rule in either east or West Africa helped the spread of Islam more than Christianity between 1855 and 1914.
  7. “Effective colonization became possible only after the development of an efficient system of transportation.” With reference to west or east or central Africa, assess the validity of this statement.
  8. “The Mahdist Revolt in the Sudan was more than a protest movement against foreign misrule and oppression.” How far do you agree with this assessment?
  9. Explain the emergence of the Independent African Churches in West Africa. How far did they contribute to the rise of African nationalism in this region before 1914?
  10. Compare and contrast the British colonial policy of indirect rule and the French policy of Association. How did these policies affect the Africans?