African History (Pre-Colonial and Colonial days)

SHOW HOW THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRADE BROUGHT POLITICAL

Stanley Henry Morton

suppression of the slave trade

the beginning of the European partition of Africa

The development and importance of house system in the transition from slave trade to legitimate trade

the flag followed the cross

the maji maji rising and ndebele shona uprising

to what extent were missionaries successful in Buganda

TRACE THE ORIGINS

what were concessionary companies

why did the British adopt a policy of Indirect rule in Northern Nigeria and parts of other colonies

Why did the efforts of Samori Touré to resist the European conquest of his territory fail

why did the partition of Africa occur in the last quarter of the 19th century and not before

Why was Buganda the most powerful interlacustrine state in East Africa

Why was King Leopold

Why was Samouri Toure able to resist the French invasion for so long and why was he defeated

WHY WAS THE BERLIN WEST AFRICA CONFERENCE CALLED IN 1884

WHY WERE EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS MORE WILLING TO SUPPORT IMPERIALIST POLICIES IN THE LATER YEARS OF THE 19TH CENTURY

~$fference between assimilation and association – Copy

~$y did the British adopt a policy of Indirect rule in Northern Nigeria and parts of other colonies

african independent churches

African religious responses to colonialism – Copy

ANALYZE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HOUSE SYSTEM AND ANALYZE ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE STATES OF THE NIGER DELTA

ASSESS THE CONTRIBUTION OF TEWODROS II TO THE REVIVAL OF ETHIOPIA

colonial rule and missionaries

compare and contrast sokoto and mandinka

Compare and Contrast the Maji

compare and contrast umar and the mahdi

compare maji-maji and ndebele

Contrast and compare the organizations of Mandinka and Oyo state

describe the methods used by Chaka to build and expand the Zulu kingdom

developments in trade

difference between assimilation and association – Copy

Discuss the career and assess the achievement of Menelik II as the ruler of Ethiopia

DISCUSS THE CAREER AND ASSESS THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF MENELIK II AS RULER OF ETHIOPIA

DISCUSS THE VIEW THAT

effects of missionary work

explain the growth of African independent churches

EXPLAIN WITH EXAMPLES

formal and informal empires

HOW AND WHY WERE DAHOMEY AND THE NIGER DELTA STATES ABLE TO MAKE THE TRANSITION FROM THE SLAVE TRADE QUICKLY AND SUCCESSFULLY

HOW SUCCESSFUL WERE THE SOUTHERN NIGERIAN PRODUCERS OF VEGETABLE PRODUCTS

IDENTIFY THE FACTORS THAT ENABLED SAMOURI TOURE TO BUILD THE MANDINKA EMPIRE AND ANALYZE THE MAIN FEATURES OF HIS STATE

king Leopold’s actions

ngoni invasions

Non economic factors were of little importance in bringing about the scramble for Africa

ONE OF THE 19TH CENTURY GREATEST FIGURES

Outline the careers and show the importance in African history of any two of the following

question on prempe I of Asante – Copy

question on prempe I of Asante

Question on tewodros

question on trans-atlantic slave trade

question on trans-atlantic slave trade2

reasons and methods for the abolition of the slave trade

resistance to colonial encroachment

samouri’s resistance

African History E Books

Zulu – Saul David

West African Kingdoms Empires Of Gold and Trade (Ancient Civilizations)

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Warrior People Of East Africa 1840-1900

Vandals, Romans and Berbers New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa

Uvin – Aiding Violence; the Development Enterprise in Rwanda (1998)

Trade and Empire in the Atlantic

Themes in West African History

The Washing Of The Spears – Donald R Morris

The Turning Point in Africa British Colonial Policy 1938-48

The Tragic State of Congo From Decolonization to Dictatorship

The Strategy of Antelopes Rwanda After the Genocide

The Soviet Union in the Horn of Africa The Diplomacy of Intervention and Disengagement (Cambridge Russian, Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies)

The Congo Wars Conflict, Myth and RealityThe Decolonization of Africa

The End of Barbary Terror Americas 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa

The First Helicopter War Logistics and Mobility in Algeria, 1954-1962

The Great Boer War

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The Great Power Struggle in East Asia, 1944-50 Britain, America and Post-War Rivalry (Global Conflict and Security Since 1945)

The History of Northern Africa (The Britannica Guide to Africa)

The Hot Cold War The USSR in Southern Africa

The Italian Invasion of Abyssinia 1935-36

The limits of humanitarian intervention genocide in Rwanda

The New South Africa

the Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade

The Cambridge History of Africa (1905-1940)

The Boer Wars 1898-1902

The Boer Wars 1836-98

4356857_orig

The Boer War South Africa 1899-1902 (Battles and Histories)

The Boer War

The Boer War Historiography and Annotated Bibliography (Bibliographies of Battles and Leaders)

Stearns – Dancing in the Glory of Monsters; the Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa (2011)

South Africa in World History

South Africa at war White power and the crisis in southern Africa

Researching Conflict in Africa Insights And Experiences

Revolutionary Path

Rorkes Drift 1879 Pinned like rats in a hole

Reid – A History of Modern Africa, 1800 to the Present, 2nd ed. (2012)

Peterson – Me against My Brother at War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda (2000)

Pears – Remnants of Empire in Algeria and Vietnam; Women, Words, and War (2004)

Great battles Spion Kop. The Second Boer War

Congo Exploration, Reform, and a Brutal Legacy (Exploration of Africa, the Emerging Nations.)

Atlantic History – A Critical

Atlas of African-American History, Revised Edition

Copper Empire Mining and the Colonial State in Northern Rhodesia, c.1930-64 (Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies)

How Colonialism Preempted Modernity in Africa

HRW – The Curse of Gold; Democratic Republic of Congo (2005)

Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Africa From Slavery Days to Rwandan Genocide

Black Death AIDS in Africa

Pacification in Algeria, 1956-1958

Glassman – War of Words, War of Stones; Racial Thought and Violence in Colonial Zanzibar (2011)

Colenso 1899 The Boer War in Natal

Algeria (Africa Continent in the Balance)

African History: A Very Short Introduction, John Parker & Richard Rathbone

Canada, the Congo Crisis, and UN Peacekeeping, 1960-64

Gender and Decolonization in the Congo The Legacy of Patrice Lumumba

Orji – Ethnic and Religious Conflict in Africa (2008)

Nigeria 1880 To the Present The Struggle, the Tragedy, the Promise (Exploration of Africa the Emerging Nations)

Frontiersmen Warfare In Africa Since 1950 (Warfare and History)

Cambridge History of Africa

Africa and Africans

A History of Modern Africa 1800 to the Present, 2nd Edition (Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World)

Butler – Copper Empire (2007)

Eyes to the South French Anarchists & Algeria

New Encyclopedia of Africa

Mohamed Fekini and the Fight to Free Libya (Italian and Italian American Studies)

Ethiopia in the Modern World (Explorations of Africa)

British Infantryman in South Africa 1877-81

British Infantryman in South Africa 1877-81 (2)

Borstelmann – Apartheid’s Reluctant Uncle; the United States and Southern Africa in the Early Cold War (1993)

Boer War 1899-1902

Boer Commando 1876-1902

Dutch and Portuguese in Western Africa Empires, Merchants and the Atlantic System, 1580-1674 (Atlantic World)

Empires of Medieval West Africa Ghana Mali Songhay

Empires of Medieval West Africa Ghana, Mali, and Songhay

Encyclopedia of African History

Medieval Africa, 1250-1800 – Roland Oliver & Anthony Atmore

Medieval Africa, 1250 – 1800

Imagining the Congo The International Relations of Identity

Ian Knight – The Zulu War 1879 (Essential Histories #56)

‘A’ Level Tropical History Questions

 

  1. Assess the relative importance of the various motives for the European partition of Africa. (1992)
  2. Explain why the sea-borne slave trade from either west or East Africa survived into the second half of the 19th century and how it was eventually stamped out. (1991)

3              .Compare and contrast the contributions of Tewodros II and Johannes IV to the revival of Ethiopia after 1855.

  1. Account for and illustrate the emergence of new states in the Niger Delta in the second half of the 19th century. Explain why these were short-lived.
  2. Describe and explain the political and social results of the presence of Christian missions in Buganda between 1879 and 1900.
  3. “British Intervention in Egypt in 1822 was the most important influence in the acceleration of the scramble for Africa” How far do you agree with this claim?
  4. With reference to Malawi or to West Africa, explain why and with what results African Christians developed independent churches in the last 20 years of this period.
  5. Explain the reactions of any two of the following African rulers to European pressure encroachment on their territory and sovereignty: Bai Bureh in Sierra Leone, Behanzin in Dahomey, Mkwawa of the Hehe, Mumia of the Wanga, Lewanika of Barotseland, and Lobengula of Matabeleland. What were the results of the policies of the chosen rulers?
  6. For what reasons did some African rulers welcome Christian missionaries to their territories and others ban them? Illustrate these different attitudes with specific examples from any part of tropical Africa.
  7. Why did direct rule “work” in northern Nigeria but not in Southern Nigeria?
  8. Describe and assess the effects of how the French administered their colonies in West Africa up to 1946.
  9. When and why did the French replace their policy of ‘assimilation’ by that of ‘association’ and how did the latter differ from the former.
  10. Compare and contrast methods used by Europeans to exploit or develop economically two different regions of Africa (East and Central Africa).
  11. How did some groups of Africans take advantage of the economic changes that occurred after the partition?
  12. Why was the transition from Slave Trade to Legitimate Trade achieved relatively quickly and

Successfully in Dahomey and the Niger Delta states (Dahomey, Brass, Opobo, Bonny, Itsekiri,

and Kalabari?)

  1. How did the pattern of Trade and its control change in the second half of the 19th century in

Dahomey and the Niger Delta states.

Colonial methods used by the British and the French in their colonies with special reference to West Africa.

Definition: Association-spend time or have dealings with a special group of people, Assimilation-take and absorb, indirect rule-the Europeans were ruling but using the African chiefs to implement their rule and direct rule Europeans were actually ruling African territories.

According to Adu Boahen: assimilation meant a “colonial policy of transferring to the colonies the institutions, culture and economic organization of the imperial country, of moulding the colony in the image of the imperial country and turning its people into Europeans in all aspects  except colour.”

 

QUESTION: Why did the French abandon assimilation for association?
Define: Association and assimilation

Explain how this method was implemented (i) who was in power, (ii) how did he rule the ordinary people, (iii) how did the Africans react, (iv) examples of areas where it was applied

Problems with assimilation

Assimilated people were expected to spread French education; a number of subjects would become citizens and enjoy rights of French political and judicial institutions.  The French carried assimilation further than the British.

Fell into two groups: Those who advocated personal assimilation of administered peoples and those who advocated for administrative, political or economic identity between mother country and the colony. Take and absorb, equality before the law, and accept Africans.

 

 A level history 9155/4 Tropical Africa 1996

  1. How did trade between west Africa and Europe change during this period? Show how and with what success different peoples responded to the change.
  2. Analyze the impact of the Ngoni invasions on Central and East Africa.
  3. Who were the Creoles in West Africa? Assess and explain their achievements in this period.
  4. Analyze the aims and the nature of Lobengula’s response to European demands and threats and explain why he eventually lost his kingdom to the British.
  5. Why was Menelik II successful and Samouri Toure unsuccessful in resisting European encroachment and invasion?
  6. “The objectives and policies of European powers in Africa changed dramatically between 1875 and 1885”. Show how and why this happened.
  7. Explain the outbreak and assess the success of the Mahdists movement in Sudan.
  8. With reference to its impact in two different regions between 1880 and 1914 show how Christianity was both a destructive and a constructive force in Africa.
  9. “To protest against colonial rule before 1914 Africans turned to religion rather than politics”. How far is this claim justified?
  10. Analyze the similarities and the differences between British and French methods of colonial administration in this period.(1855-1914)

Characteristics of the French colonial policies in Africa

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Assimilation

The initial aim of the system of ‘assimilation’ was to absorb as many Africans as possible into French culture and turn Africans into ‘black Frenchmen’. Those Africans who met specified requirements would be granted French citizenship and be accepted as equal partners of the French. In practice it was so difficult for Africans to meet the stringent requirements that very few succeeded in qualifying for French citizenship. The exception was in the 4 Senegalese Communes of St. Louis, Dakar, Rufisque and Goree, where birth was the only qualification required. Under the system of ‘association’ Africans would be associated with Frenchmen in administering French colonies, but not as equal partners. The French authorities appointed educated Africans in preference to traditional African chiefs to posts of responsibility. Only when educated Africans were not available would traditional rulers be used, and then only in low-ranking posts and as appointees of the French, not as of right.

French-1904

When and why the  French changed to association :

Change began in about 1900 for the following reasons:

1.the high cost of maintaining the system of assimilation;

2.the realization that, in time, Africans might outnumber Frenchmen in the French Assembly;

3.French businessmen disliked increasing competition from Africans working on equal terms;

4.opposition of Africans to becoming ‘black Frenchmen’, losing their own culture and traditions.

 

What were the similarities and differences between the French systems of assimilation and association?

COLLECTIE_TROPENMUSEUM_Houten_roeiboot_onderdeel_van_de_miniatuurvoorstelling_van_een_roeiboot_met_een_Europeaan_en_vier_roeiers._TMnr_3441-7a

French colonial policy in Africa was bedeviled by an intrinsic contradiction. Philosophically the motivation was guided by the time honoured slogan of liberty, Equality and Fraternity. This created the policy of assimilation, with the inherent assumption that all men are equal and that civilization can be taught and learned. However, following this policy to it logical conclusion would negate the economic point of colonization, so under the influence of ‘social Darwinism’, or racism, and pressure of various interest groups, assimilation was restricted to the Quatre Communes of Senegal. The rest of French West Africa was governed through the system of ‘association’, a form of separate development for each community aimed at creating the same level of civilization in time.

Differences

Similarities

Argument Evidence Argument Evidence
1.very different philosophies of rule

 

 

 

-assimilation aimed at civilizing Africans into being French and governing selves based on the view that Africans were normal humans who could be civilized.

-association did not aim at self rule so there was little point in educating Africans. Based on racist view that Africans could not be civilized.

5.In reality both methods by 1900 had racist basis. -French government avoiding any expansion in assimilated Africans so they were rarely able to get positions of power.

-it was possible for the new African ruling class of associationist French West Africa to gain education and become ‘French’ with some power in their area.

2. Different modes of implementation -assimilation involved considerable effort to develop services, e.g. schools.

-association involved removing traditional ruling class and creating French controlled governing structure.

6.Both systems involved exploitation of local resources. -as in associationist areas the assimilated zones were expected to show profit and produce exports for France’s benefit, e.g. groundnuts.
3.Cost varied greatly -assimilation in Senegal was expensive and involved full community development.

 

-association in the interior of West Africa involved as limited expense as possible.

7.Both systems ultimately due to financial and manpower constraints came to look like ‘indirect rule’ by direct methods. -assimilated and associated areas saw local elites controlling much of government process.

-while the French interfered more than the British and tried to transform the government and economic system in fact lack of finance and manpower forced the French into indirect methods

4.The economic aims were very different. -assimilation aimed in theory at real development in the colony.

-association aimed at exploitation of resources using local labour

   

 

French-1904

https://worldwidehistoryonline.wordpress.com/2017/04/04/french-colonial-policies-in-africa-assimilation-and-association/

Summationimages

The reality of constraints of French control and financing as well as racism and paternalism in France’s attitude to Africans turned two different ruling philosophies into policies that looked increasingly like Britain’s ‘indirect rule’ but with more interventionist methods. French rule was always couched in justification based on the principles of the French Revolution, but the reality was very different. Ultimately the economic purpose of colonization – profit making –negated good intentions and showed colonization for what it really was, pure exploitation of Africans.

French colonial policies in Africa :Assimilation and Association

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When and why did the French replace assimilation with association

In the early years of 20th century, has never been completed in the sense that assimilation has never been completely abandoned. The reasons for the abandonment of assimilation arose from its disadvantages:

1.Expensive to educate the Africans while association was cheaper to implement.

2.In the long run it could mean that Africans who had become French Citizens could take over French Parliament and government by outnumbering them(French Europeans)

3.Social Darwinism

4.Discovery of malaria combating drug( Quinine) meant that Europeans could live in Africa without fearing for their lives.

5.Needed forced labour

6.Economically it could mean that African businessmen would face French businessmen in equal competition

For Africans there were disadvantages

7.Abandon their own culture

8.Was so difficult to met the requirements for French Citizenship, the very few Africans succeeded in qualifying

9.Only in the 4 communes of Senegal, where birth alone was the qualification, had significant numbers of Africans become French citizens.

 

france-n-africa

 

How  association differ from assimilation

1.Assimilation aimed at absorbing Africans,

2.very expensive,

3.the Africans could become businessmen,

4.in the communes

5.Association used the Black elite, introduced taxes and forced labour

 

Causes of the French colonial administration policies

1.Political instability

2.Strategic factors

3.Prestige

4.Markets

5.Raw materials

6.Civilization

7.Christianity

8.Commerce

 

French-1904

Longterm and shortterm results of the French policies

1.Nationalism

2.Education – no bottle necks, not supposed to pay

3.More priests were ordained

4.Africans could continue with their culture

5.Health facilities were improved

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