- Assess the relative importance of the various motives for the European partition of Africa. (1992)
- Explain why the sea-borne slave trade from either west or East Africa survived into the second half of the 19th century and how it was eventually stamped out. (1991)
3 .Compare and contrast the contributions of Tewodros II and Johannes IV to the revival of Ethiopia after 1855.
- Account for and illustrate the emergence of new states in the Niger Delta in the second half of the 19th century. Explain why these were short-lived.
- Describe and explain the political and social results of the presence of Christian missions in Buganda between 1879 and 1900.
- “British Intervention in Egypt in 1822 was the most important influence in the acceleration of the scramble for Africa” How far do you agree with this claim?
- With reference to Malawi or to West Africa, explain why and with what results African Christians developed independent churches in the last 20 years of this period.
- Explain the reactions of any two of the following African rulers to European pressure encroachment on their territory and sovereignty: Bai Bureh in Sierra Leone, Behanzin in Dahomey, Mkwawa of the Hehe, Mumia of the Wanga, Lewanika of Barotseland, and Lobengula of Matabeleland. What were the results of the policies of the chosen rulers?
- For what reasons did some African rulers welcome Christian missionaries to their territories and others ban them? Illustrate these different attitudes with specific examples from any part of tropical Africa.
- Why did direct rule “work” in northern Nigeria but not in Southern Nigeria?
- Describe and assess the effects of how the French administered their colonies in West Africa up to 1946.
- When and why did the French replace their policy of ‘assimilation’ by that of ‘association’ and how did the latter differ from the former.
- Compare and contrast methods used by Europeans to exploit or develop economically two different regions of Africa (East and Central Africa).
- How did some groups of Africans take advantage of the economic changes that occurred after the partition?
- Why was the transition from Slave Trade to Legitimate Trade achieved relatively quickly and
Successfully in Dahomey and the Niger Delta states (Dahomey, Brass, Opobo, Bonny, Itsekiri,
- How did the pattern of Trade and its control change in the second half of the 19th century in
Dahomey and the Niger Delta states.
Colonial methods used by the British and the French in their colonies with special reference to West Africa.
Definition: Association-spend time or have dealings with a special group of people, Assimilation-take and absorb, indirect rule-the Europeans were ruling but using the African chiefs to implement their rule and direct rule Europeans were actually ruling African territories.
According to Adu Boahen: assimilation meant a “colonial policy of transferring to the colonies the institutions, culture and economic organization of the imperial country, of moulding the colony in the image of the imperial country and turning its people into Europeans in all aspects except colour.”
QUESTION: Why did the French abandon assimilation for association?
Define: Association and assimilation
Explain how this method was implemented (i) who was in power, (ii) how did he rule the ordinary people, (iii) how did the Africans react, (iv) examples of areas where it was applied
Problems with assimilation
Assimilated people were expected to spread French education; a number of subjects would become citizens and enjoy rights of French political and judicial institutions. The French carried assimilation further than the British.
Fell into two groups: Those who advocated personal assimilation of administered peoples and those who advocated for administrative, political or economic identity between mother country and the colony. Take and absorb, equality before the law, and accept Africans.
- How did trade between west Africa and Europe change during this period? Show how and with what success different peoples responded to the change.
- Analyze the impact of the Ngoni invasions on Central and East Africa.
- Who were the Creoles in West Africa? Assess and explain their achievements in this period.
- Analyze the aims and the nature of Lobengula’s response to European demands and threats and explain why he eventually lost his kingdom to the British.
- Why was Menelik II successful and Samouri Toure unsuccessful in resisting European encroachment and invasion?
- “The objectives and policies of European powers in Africa changed dramatically between 1875 and 1885”. Show how and why this happened.
- Explain the outbreak and assess the success of the Mahdists movement in Sudan.
- With reference to its impact in two different regions between 1880 and 1914 show how Christianity was both a destructive and a constructive force in Africa.
- “To protest against colonial rule before 1914 Africans turned to religion rather than politics”. How far is this claim justified?
- Analyze the similarities and the differences between British and French methods of colonial administration in this period.(1855-1914)
The initial aim of the system of ‘assimilation’ was to absorb as many Africans as possible into French culture and turn Africans into ‘black Frenchmen’. Those Africans who met specified requirements would be granted French citizenship and be accepted as equal partners of the French. In practice it was so difficult for Africans to meet the stringent requirements that very few succeeded in qualifying for French citizenship. The exception was in the 4 Senegalese Communes of St. Louis, Dakar, Rufisque and Goree, where birth was the only qualification required. Under the system of ‘association’ Africans would be associated with Frenchmen in administering French colonies, but not as equal partners. The French authorities appointed educated Africans in preference to traditional African chiefs to posts of responsibility. Only when educated Africans were not available would traditional rulers be used, and then only in low-ranking posts and as appointees of the French, not as of right.
When and why the French changed to association :
Change began in about 1900 for the following reasons:
1.the high cost of maintaining the system of assimilation;
2.the realization that, in time, Africans might outnumber Frenchmen in the French Assembly;
3.French businessmen disliked increasing competition from Africans working on equal terms;
4.opposition of Africans to becoming ‘black Frenchmen’, losing their own culture and traditions.
French colonial policy in Africa was bedeviled by an intrinsic contradiction. Philosophically the motivation was guided by the time honoured slogan of liberty, Equality and Fraternity. This created the policy of assimilation, with the inherent assumption that all men are equal and that civilization can be taught and learned. However, following this policy to it logical conclusion would negate the economic point of colonization, so under the influence of ‘social Darwinism’, or racism, and pressure of various interest groups, assimilation was restricted to the Quatre Communes of Senegal. The rest of French West Africa was governed through the system of ‘association’, a form of separate development for each community aimed at creating the same level of civilization in time.
|1.very different philosophies of rule
|-assimilation aimed at civilizing Africans into being French and governing selves based on the view that Africans were normal humans who could be civilized.
-association did not aim at self rule so there was little point in educating Africans. Based on racist view that Africans could not be civilized.
|5.In reality both methods by 1900 had racist basis.||-French government avoiding any expansion in assimilated Africans so they were rarely able to get positions of power.
-it was possible for the new African ruling class of associationist French West Africa to gain education and become ‘French’ with some power in their area.
|2. Different modes of implementation||-assimilation involved considerable effort to develop services, e.g. schools.
-association involved removing traditional ruling class and creating French controlled governing structure.
|6.Both systems involved exploitation of local resources.||-as in associationist areas the assimilated zones were expected to show profit and produce exports for France’s benefit, e.g. groundnuts.|
|3.Cost varied greatly||-assimilation in Senegal was expensive and involved full community development.
-association in the interior of West Africa involved as limited expense as possible.
|7.Both systems ultimately due to financial and manpower constraints came to look like ‘indirect rule’ by direct methods.||-assimilated and associated areas saw local elites controlling much of government process.
-while the French interfered more than the British and tried to transform the government and economic system in fact lack of finance and manpower forced the French into indirect methods
|4.The economic aims were very different.||-assimilation aimed in theory at real development in the colony.
-association aimed at exploitation of resources using local labour
The reality of constraints of French control and financing as well as racism and paternalism in France’s attitude to Africans turned two different ruling philosophies into policies that looked increasingly like Britain’s ‘indirect rule’ but with more interventionist methods. French rule was always couched in justification based on the principles of the French Revolution, but the reality was very different. Ultimately the economic purpose of colonization – profit making –negated good intentions and showed colonization for what it really was, pure exploitation of Africans.
When and why did the French replace assimilation with association
In the early years of 20th century, has never been completed in the sense that assimilation has never been completely abandoned. The reasons for the abandonment of assimilation arose from its disadvantages:
1.Expensive to educate the Africans while association was cheaper to implement.
2.In the long run it could mean that Africans who had become French Citizens could take over French Parliament and government by outnumbering them(French Europeans)
4.Discovery of malaria combating drug( Quinine) meant that Europeans could live in Africa without fearing for their lives.
5.Needed forced labour
6.Economically it could mean that African businessmen would face French businessmen in equal competition
For Africans there were disadvantages
7.Abandon their own culture
8.Was so difficult to met the requirements for French Citizenship, the very few Africans succeeded in qualifying
9.Only in the 4 communes of Senegal, where birth alone was the qualification, had significant numbers of Africans become French citizens.
How association differ from assimilation
1.Assimilation aimed at absorbing Africans,
3.the Africans could become businessmen,
4.in the communes
5.Association used the Black elite, introduced taxes and forced labour
Causes of the French colonial administration policies
Longterm and shortterm results of the French policies
2.Education – no bottle necks, not supposed to pay
3.More priests were ordained
4.Africans could continue with their culture
5.Health facilities were improved