Candidates must answer FOUR questions from at least TWO sections. Five questions
will be set for each section. The paper is split as follows:-
SECTION A (1789-1814)Theme. The French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.
Causes of the French Revolution including issues of human rights and gender; course
of the Revolution including the Declaration of Rights, effects on government, society,
economy, religion and governance: Napoleonic France and Europe; domestic and
foreign policy:- effects on governance, human rights and gender.
SECTION B (1815-1870): Theme:- Change and continuity in Europe.
The main forces:- the Vienna settlement and the Congress System: successes and
failures (1830; 1848-9;) imperialism; Russian, Austrian and Turkish nationalism and
French, German and Italian liberalism and their effects on the Ottoman Empire and
the Balkan States and how they affected international relations; challenges in terms of governance; reform and foreign policies of France, Russia and Austria and their
effects on domestic international relations. German and Italian unification.
SECTION C (1871-1919) Theme:- Industrialization and imperialism.
Background information on industrialization, reform movements and transport
particularly in Britain, France, Prussia and Russia: Imperialism:- theories, processes and events: the Berlin Conference; domestic and foreign challenges facing Bismarck and William II in Germany; challenges facing the Third Republic in France, e.g. the Paris Commune and other crises; challenges facing Russia 1881 – 1917.
Origins and events leading to World War I: causes e.g. the Alliance system,
militarism; World War I – key strategies and events of the war; effects of the war,
e.g. collapse of empires, women getting voting rights, emergence of Communism,
new drugs and medication methods, improvements in communications.
SECTION D (1919-1945): Theme. Democracy and dictatorship.
The Peace Settlement, Peace Treaties and the League of Nations:
Germany:- the Weimar Republic and the rise of Hitler (Nazi Germany).
Italy:- failure of post-war political systems and the rise of Fascism (Mussolini).
Spain: the Spanish Republic; the Spanish civil war and Franco.
The rise and development of communism in the USSR up to 1964.
Britain and France – continuity of democracy.
International tensions: the Great Depression and its impact on Europe.
Origins and events leading to World War II:- impact of Peace Treaties, arms race,
militarism, The Great Depression, nationalism, the alliances/pacts and weaknesses of the League of Nations, Appeasement.
World War II:- strategies, military technology and planning.
End of war and effects.
SECTION E (1945 – 1964): Theme. Globalisation and international co-operation:
Post war Europe -:the UN, Warsaw Pact, the EU economic growth and post war
reconstruction, Europe and Japan; the Marshall Plan, COMECON, and emergence of
decolonization movements. The Cold War – origins and manifestations; the intra and inter bloc conflicts in Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Cuba; Greece; Turkey, NATO, Warsaw Pact; The role of the UN in conflict resolution in Europe.
- Assess the relative importance of the various motives for the European partition of Africa. (1992)
- Explain why the sea-borne slave trade from either west or East Africa survived into the second half of the 19th century and how it was eventually stamped out. (1991)
3 .Compare and contrast the contributions of Tewodros II and Johannes IV to the revival of Ethiopia after 1855.
- Account for and illustrate the emergence of new states in the Niger Delta in the second half of the 19th century. Explain why these were short-lived.
- Describe and explain the political and social results of the presence of Christian missions in Buganda between 1879 and 1900.
- “British Intervention in Egypt in 1822 was the most important influence in the acceleration of the scramble for Africa” How far do you agree with this claim?
- With reference to Malawi or to West Africa, explain why and with what results African Christians developed independent churches in the last 20 years of this period.
- Explain the reactions of any two of the following African rulers to European pressure encroachment on their territory and sovereignty: Bai Bureh in Sierra Leone, Behanzin in Dahomey, Mkwawa of the Hehe, Mumia of the Wanga, Lewanika of Barotseland, and Lobengula of Matabeleland. What were the results of the policies of the chosen rulers?
- For what reasons did some African rulers welcome Christian missionaries to their territories and others ban them? Illustrate these different attitudes with specific examples from any part of tropical Africa.
- Why did direct rule “work” in northern Nigeria but not in Southern Nigeria?
- Describe and assess the effects of how the French administered their colonies in West Africa up to 1946.
- When and why did the French replace their policy of ‘assimilation’ by that of ‘association’ and how did the latter differ from the former.
- Compare and contrast methods used by Europeans to exploit or develop economically two different regions of Africa (East and Central Africa).
- How did some groups of Africans take advantage of the economic changes that occurred after the partition?
- Why was the transition from Slave Trade to Legitimate Trade achieved relatively quickly and
Successfully in Dahomey and the Niger Delta states (Dahomey, Brass, Opobo, Bonny, Itsekiri,
- How did the pattern of Trade and its control change in the second half of the 19th century in
Dahomey and the Niger Delta states.
Colonial methods used by the British and the French in their colonies with special reference to West Africa.
Definition: Association-spend time or have dealings with a special group of people, Assimilation-take and absorb, indirect rule-the Europeans were ruling but using the African chiefs to implement their rule and direct rule Europeans were actually ruling African territories.
According to Adu Boahen: assimilation meant a “colonial policy of transferring to the colonies the institutions, culture and economic organization of the imperial country, of moulding the colony in the image of the imperial country and turning its people into Europeans in all aspects except colour.”
QUESTION: Why did the French abandon assimilation for association?
Define: Association and assimilation
Explain how this method was implemented (i) who was in power, (ii) how did he rule the ordinary people, (iii) how did the Africans react, (iv) examples of areas where it was applied
Problems with assimilation
Assimilated people were expected to spread French education; a number of subjects would become citizens and enjoy rights of French political and judicial institutions. The French carried assimilation further than the British.
Fell into two groups: Those who advocated personal assimilation of administered peoples and those who advocated for administrative, political or economic identity between mother country and the colony. Take and absorb, equality before the law, and accept Africans.
- Why did the slave trade and domestic slavery persist in both East and West Africa well into second half of the 19th century?
- Assess the achievements of the Creoles in West Africa and explain the changed British attitude towards them after 1890.
- Analyze the reasons for, and the results of, the Ngoni invasions of Central and East Africa.
- Explain the warfare and unstable conditions in Yorubaland in this period with specific reference to the role of Ibadan.
- Why was the Berlin West Africa Conference called in 1884? What were the results of its decisions for the colonial powers and for Africa?
- Account for the growth of independent African Churches in this period and assess their achievements.
- Why did Africans generally respond more favourably and more readily to Islam than to Christian missionaries in many colonial territories in tropical Africa?
- Explain why the British invaded Asante in 1896 and why the Asante did not resist.
- Why, and with what results before 1914, did the colonial powers build railways in either East Africa or Central Africa?
- When and why did the French replace their policy of ‘assimilation’ by that of ‘association’? How did the latter differ from the former?
- How did trade between west Africa and Europe change during this period? Show how and with what success different peoples responded to the change.
- Analyze the impact of the Ngoni invasions on Central and East Africa.
- Who were the Creoles in West Africa? Assess and explain their achievements in this period.
- Analyze the aims and the nature of Lobengula’s response to European demands and threats and explain why he eventually lost his kingdom to the British.
- Why was Menelik II successful and Samouri Toure unsuccessful in resisting European encroachment and invasion?
- “The objectives and policies of European powers in Africa changed dramatically between 1875 and 1885”. Show how and why this happened.
- Explain the outbreak and assess the success of the Mahdists movement in Sudan.
- With reference to its impact in two different regions between 1880 and 1914 show how Christianity was both a destructive and a constructive force in Africa.
- “To protest against colonial rule before 1914 Africans turned to religion rather than politics”. How far is this claim justified?
- Analyze the similarities and the differences between British and French methods of colonial administration in this period.(1855-1914)
When and why did the French replace assimilation with association
In the early years of 20th century, has never been completed in the sense that assimilation has never been completely abandoned. The reasons for the abandonment of assimilation arose from its disadvantages:
1.Expensive to educate the Africans while association was cheaper to implement.
2.In the long run it could mean that Africans who had become French Citizens could take over French Parliament and government by outnumbering them(French Europeans)
4.Discovery of malaria combating drug( Quinine) meant that Europeans could live in Africa without fearing for their lives.
5.Needed forced labour
6.Economically it could mean that African businessmen would face French businessmen in equal competition
For Africans there were disadvantages
7.Abandon their own culture
8.Was so difficult to met the requirements for French Citizenship, the very few Africans succeeded in qualifying
9.Only in the 4 communes of Senegal, where birth alone was the qualification, had significant numbers of Africans become French citizens.
How association differ from assimilation
1.Assimilation aimed at absorbing Africans,
3.the Africans could become businessmen,
4.in the communes
5.Association used the Black elite, introduced taxes and forced labour
Causes of the French colonial administration policies
Longterm and shortterm results of the French policies
2.Education – no bottle necks, not supposed to pay
3.More priests were ordained
4.Africans could continue with their culture
5.Health facilities were improved