Candidates must answer FOUR questions from at least TWO sections. Five questions
will be set for each section. The paper is split as follows:-
SECTION A (1789-1814)Theme. The French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.
Causes of the French Revolution including issues of human rights and gender; course
of the Revolution including the Declaration of Rights, effects on government, society,
economy, religion and governance: Napoleonic France and Europe; domestic and
foreign policy:- effects on governance, human rights and gender.
SECTION B (1815-1870): Theme:- Change and continuity in Europe.
The main forces:- the Vienna settlement and the Congress System: successes and
failures (1830; 1848-9;) imperialism; Russian, Austrian and Turkish nationalism and
French, German and Italian liberalism and their effects on the Ottoman Empire and
the Balkan States and how they affected international relations; challenges in terms of governance; reform and foreign policies of France, Russia and Austria and their
effects on domestic international relations. German and Italian unification.
SECTION C (1871-1919) Theme:- Industrialization and imperialism.
Background information on industrialization, reform movements and transport
particularly in Britain, France, Prussia and Russia: Imperialism:- theories, processes and events: the Berlin Conference; domestic and foreign challenges facing Bismarck and William II in Germany; challenges facing the Third Republic in France, e.g. the Paris Commune and other crises; challenges facing Russia 1881 – 1917.
Origins and events leading to World War I: causes e.g. the Alliance system,
militarism; World War I – key strategies and events of the war; effects of the war,
e.g. collapse of empires, women getting voting rights, emergence of Communism,
new drugs and medication methods, improvements in communications.
SECTION D (1919-1945): Theme. Democracy and dictatorship.
The Peace Settlement, Peace Treaties and the League of Nations:
Germany:- the Weimar Republic and the rise of Hitler (Nazi Germany).
Italy:- failure of post-war political systems and the rise of Fascism (Mussolini).
Spain: the Spanish Republic; the Spanish civil war and Franco.
The rise and development of communism in the USSR up to 1964.
Britain and France – continuity of democracy.
International tensions: the Great Depression and its impact on Europe.
Origins and events leading to World War II:- impact of Peace Treaties, arms race,
militarism, The Great Depression, nationalism, the alliances/pacts and weaknesses of the League of Nations, Appeasement.
World War II:- strategies, military technology and planning.
End of war and effects.
SECTION E (1945 – 1964): Theme. Globalisation and international co-operation:
Post war Europe -:the UN, Warsaw Pact, the EU economic growth and post war
reconstruction, Europe and Japan; the Marshall Plan, COMECON, and emergence of
decolonization movements. The Cold War – origins and manifestations; the intra and inter bloc conflicts in Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Cuba; Greece; Turkey, NATO, Warsaw Pact; The role of the UN in conflict resolution in Europe.
- The British wanted their presence to be felt.
- Strategic reasons- transport of goods,
- benefit Europeans traders,
- boost the economy,
- further exploit African resources (sisal coffee),
- moving troops into the interior.
- The Germans wanted opportunities for trade.
- Transport immigrant settlers,
- steady source of revenue,
- communications improved,
- able to supply sea ports,
- helped the flow of money e.g. Uganda. Successful in coffee
- Assess the relative importance of the various motives for the European partition of Africa. (1992)
- Explain why the sea-borne slave trade from either west or East Africa survived into the second half of the 19th century and how it was eventually stamped out. (1991)
3 .Compare and contrast the contributions of Tewodros II and Johannes IV to the revival of Ethiopia after 1855.
- Account for and illustrate the emergence of new states in the Niger Delta in the second half of the 19th century. Explain why these were short-lived.
- Describe and explain the political and social results of the presence of Christian missions in Buganda between 1879 and 1900.
- “British Intervention in Egypt in 1822 was the most important influence in the acceleration of the scramble for Africa” How far do you agree with this claim?
- With reference to Malawi or to West Africa, explain why and with what results African Christians developed independent churches in the last 20 years of this period.
- Explain the reactions of any two of the following African rulers to European pressure encroachment on their territory and sovereignty: Bai Bureh in Sierra Leone, Behanzin in Dahomey, Mkwawa of the Hehe, Mumia of the Wanga, Lewanika of Barotseland, and Lobengula of Matabeleland. What were the results of the policies of the chosen rulers?
- For what reasons did some African rulers welcome Christian missionaries to their territories and others ban them? Illustrate these different attitudes with specific examples from any part of tropical Africa.
- Why did direct rule “work” in northern Nigeria but not in Southern Nigeria?
- Describe and assess the effects of how the French administered their colonies in West Africa up to 1946.
- When and why did the French replace their policy of ‘assimilation’ by that of ‘association’ and how did the latter differ from the former.
- Compare and contrast methods used by Europeans to exploit or develop economically two different regions of Africa (East and Central Africa).
- How did some groups of Africans take advantage of the economic changes that occurred after the partition?
- Why was the transition from Slave Trade to Legitimate Trade achieved relatively quickly and
Successfully in Dahomey and the Niger Delta states (Dahomey, Brass, Opobo, Bonny, Itsekiri,
- How did the pattern of Trade and its control change in the second half of the 19th century in
Dahomey and the Niger Delta states.
Colonial methods used by the British and the French in their colonies with special reference to West Africa.
Definition: Association-spend time or have dealings with a special group of people, Assimilation-take and absorb, indirect rule-the Europeans were ruling but using the African chiefs to implement their rule and direct rule Europeans were actually ruling African territories.
According to Adu Boahen: assimilation meant a “colonial policy of transferring to the colonies the institutions, culture and economic organization of the imperial country, of moulding the colony in the image of the imperial country and turning its people into Europeans in all aspects except colour.”
QUESTION: Why did the French abandon assimilation for association?
Define: Association and assimilation
Explain how this method was implemented (i) who was in power, (ii) how did he rule the ordinary people, (iii) how did the Africans react, (iv) examples of areas where it was applied
Problems with assimilation
Assimilated people were expected to spread French education; a number of subjects would become citizens and enjoy rights of French political and judicial institutions. The French carried assimilation further than the British.
Fell into two groups: Those who advocated personal assimilation of administered peoples and those who advocated for administrative, political or economic identity between mother country and the colony. Take and absorb, equality before the law, and accept Africans.
- Why did the slave trade and domestic slavery persist in both East and West Africa well into second half of the 19th century?
- Assess the achievements of the Creoles in West Africa and explain the changed British attitude towards them after 1890.
- Analyze the reasons for, and the results of, the Ngoni invasions of Central and East Africa.
- Explain the warfare and unstable conditions in Yorubaland in this period with specific reference to the role of Ibadan.
- Why was the Berlin West Africa Conference called in 1884? What were the results of its decisions for the colonial powers and for Africa?
- Account for the growth of independent African Churches in this period and assess their achievements.
- Why did Africans generally respond more favourably and more readily to Islam than to Christian missionaries in many colonial territories in tropical Africa?
- Explain why the British invaded Asante in 1896 and why the Asante did not resist.
- Why, and with what results before 1914, did the colonial powers build railways in either East Africa or Central Africa?
- When and why did the French replace their policy of ‘assimilation’ by that of ‘association’? How did the latter differ from the former?
- Why was the transition from the slave trade to legitimate trade achieved successfully in Dahomey and the Niger Delta states?
- Outline the careers and explain the importance in African History of two of the following: Jaja of Opobo; Lewanika, King of the Lozi; Mirambo of the Nyamwezi; Mwanga I of Buganda.
- Explain Samouri Toure’s long resistance against the French and his final defeat in 1898.
- What were the results for east Africa and its peoples of the establishment of the capital of the Omani sultanate in Zanzibar?
- What do you understand by the term ‘informal empire’? When, how and why was this replaced by ‘formal empire’?
- Analyze the factors which account for the spread of Islam and Christianity in either East or West Africa between 1885 and 1914.
- With reference to the Ndebele-shona Rising and the Maji Maji Rising identify the main features of post-pacification primary resistance movements. Compare and contrast the results of the two risings, both for Africans and the colonial powers.
- “Tewodros II, emperor of Ethiopia, was a ruler with a vision.” What was his vision and why did he fail to turn it into reality?
- Explain the emergence, and assess the achievements, of nationalist organizations and activities amongst the educated elite in British and French colonies in West Africa before 1914.
- When and why did the British adopt the system of Indirect Rule to administer most of their African colonies? What were the strengths and weaknesses of this system?
- Illustrate the extent to which ‘a blend of religion and economics’ enabled Samouri Toure to build the Mandinka state between 1857 and 1881.
- Make a critical analysis of the career and achievements of Tippu Tip.
- What were the aims of Tewodros II when he came to power? How successful was he in his attempts to achieve them?
- Show how and why Buganda collaborated with the British between 1875 and 1914.
- Give reasons for the establishment of Chartered Companies in East Africa at the time of the Partition. Why did they fail?
- Why did some African leaders accept Christian missionaries into their territories while others resisted them during this period? Illustrate your answer with specific examples.
- “To protest against colonial rule before 1914 in Central Africa, Africans turned to religion rather than politics” do you agree?
- Assess the impact of communications in both East and West Africa before 1914.
- Analyze the nature and extent to which the policy of Assimilation was pursued by Britain in her West African colonies during this period.
- How far is the term ‘nationalism’ a valid description of the political activities of the educated elite in West Africa before 1914?