• Africans were defeated.
  • The BSAC introduced formal government.
  • Africans were stripped of all power.
  • Africans lost confidence and began to accept more western culture.
  • Matabeleland and Mashonaland were united into one area called Southern Rhodesia.
  • Southern Rhodesia became a British colony.
  • Most African leaders of the uprisings were hunted down and either killed or imprisoned e.g. Execution of Sekuru Kaguvi and Mbuya Nehanda in the first street in Harare
  • The spirit of future African resistance was sowed.
  • Blacks were abused even more e.g. through cheap labour and more taxes.
  • Opened 80 more years of cruel colonial administration in Zimbabwe that ended in 1980 after the attainment of independence.
  • More land was looted by the whites.
  • The BSAC introduced formal government. .
  • Africans were stripped of all power.
  • Africans lost confidence and self esteem and began to accept more western culture.




  • The Africans were not united as they had two separate armies while the BSAC had one army.
  • Their primitive weapons such as spears, battle axes and knobkerries could not match the power of modern sophisticated weapons such as machine guns.
  • Arrival of armed volunteers from England and South Africa to suppress the struggle was another important factor that led to Africans defeat.
  • Africans who hid in caves were killed by the settlers’ army who used dynamite to force them out.
  • Those who were forced out of the caves were immediately executed.
  • The BSAC went about burning African homes and especially grain bins to starve Africans between January and April 1897.
  • In November 1896, Rhodes managed to persuade the Ndebele to an indaba at Matopos Hills where peace was agreed upon.
  • This allowed the BSAC to divert all its resources to Mashonaland.
  • If the Ndebele had remained in the war, the resources would have been stretched and its victory would not have been an easy one.
  • The capture and execution of the Africans’ source of inspiration e.g. Mbuya Nehanda and Sekuru Kaguvi in October 1897 finally brought the war to an end.



  • He was another spirit medium who became respected and obeyed around the Chishawasha area.
  • Kaguvi told his people to kill and get rid of all whites but not to touch their things.
  • Chiefs such as Makoni, Svosve, Mashayamombe and Nyandoro did as Kaguvi ordered.
  • Attempts to capture Kaguvi failed.
  • Kaguvi surrendered on his own on 27 October 1897.
  • He was executed with Mbuya Nehanda on 27 April 1898.
  • Mkwati was never captured.
  • He died in north-east Zimbabwe while organizing the struggle in that area.



  • She was a spirit medium who worked tirelessly in central Mashonaland by encouraging people to resist colonization.
  • Apart from being a spirit medium she developed successful plans for resistance and attack.
  • She forbade Africans from touching anything that belonged to the whites.
  • She promised her people that settlers’ bullets could not harm them.
  • Such encouragement led to a huge uprising by the people of Mazowe and Chiweshe areas.
  • She begun the struggle by sending men to capture the Native Commissioner of Mazowe, Mr Pollard who was executed on her orders.
  • Victorious Africans carried captured goods to Nehanda’s kraal.
  • Mbuya Nehanda became famous among her people.
  • She was later captured and executed on 27 April 1898.



  • In March 1896 an African policemen was killed by the Ndebele.
  • 130 Europeans were also killed in mines and on farms.
  • The struggle was organized by priests, mainly the senior priest, Umlugulu and by senior regimental izinduna.
  • Umlugulu worked closely with other priests such as Mkwati, Siginamatshe and Mwabani.
  • These priests were of the view that Europeans should be removed by force to restore the freedom of the people.
  • The Ndebele had learnt new tactics from the 1893 war.
  • The Ndebele were successful in battle until late April 1896 when white soldiers drove the Ndebele regiments from positions around Bulawayo.
  • By the end of 1896, settler armies had won the war in Matabeleland.



  • The Chimurenga came as a surprise to the white settlers in Mashonaland as the Shona had given them no trouble at all when they arrived in 1890.
  • Some settlers believed that they were the Shona people’s liberators from harsh Ndebele raids and rule.
  • Since 1890 the Shona had been reacting sometimes violently against company rule in Mashonaland.
  • When Chief Makoni of Manicaland showed signs of resistance in June 1896, the settler officials thought he was joking.
  • While they were preparing to teach him a lesson, they had all hell had broken loose in the Hartley (Chegutu) area.
  • Between 18 and 22 June the Chimurenga had spread to Mutoko, Marondera, Headlands and as far as Makoni District
  • Native commissioners, white farm owners and miners were killed in considerable numbers during the first few days of the war.
  • The first Chimurenga in Mashonland was organized in similar ways to that in Matabeleland.
  • Chiefs were united by religious leaders into a strong instrument for carrying out the struggle.
  • Prophets played a heroic role in bringing unity among chiefs to carry out the struggle.
  • One of these prophets was Mkwati, whose headquarters were at the old Rozvi centre of Ntabazikamambo.
  • Mkwati sent his agents or mujibhas to central Mashonaland to politicize the masses there.



 Loss of land


  • The Europeans who fought against the Ndebele in 1893 were promised farms of 6000 acres.
  • After the war the white seized their 6000 acres and even more land.
  • In 1894 a commission created the Gwaai and Shangani reserves for the Ndebele.
  • Those who did not move to the reserves remained full time labourers of the white settlers or became squatters.
  • The reserves were hot, dry and Tsetse Fly infested.


Loss of cattle


  • Cattle were very important in the Ndebele society.
  • After the defeat of the Ndebele the BSAC stole and took large numbers of Ndebele cattle.
  • All the king’s cattle were taken by the BSAC and they took about 250 000 cattle.
  • The taking away of the cattle angered the Ndebele as it was their source of wealth.


Forced labour


  • The settlers were capitalists who came into the country to make profits from farming and mining.
  • The most important resource was labour and this was cheap African labour.
  • The settlers sent patrols to the country side to raid for workers.
  • Therefore the Ndebele did not like being forced to work.
  • Furthermore, they received very low wages and quite often, none at all.



Hut tax


  • In 1894 a hut tax was introduced.
  • This was meant to force Africans to go and work in order to get money to pay tax and this in turn, could solve labour problems for the whites.
  • A tax of ten shillings was imposed on anyone who had a hut of his own.
  • The Africans who failed to pay the money had their cattle, goats, sheep or crops forcefully taken by the BSAC for non-compliance.


Police boys


  • The Ndebele complained about the treatment by the Shona police boys.
  • The Ndebele felt humiliated by the use of these Shona police boys as they once regarded the Shonas as their subjects.
  • The police boys were illiterate, untrained and wanted to demonstrate that they had power in their hands.


Need to choose a king


  • The BSAC did not want a new Ndebele king who would lead and unite his people against the settlers.
  • The indunas who called meetings to discuss the ISSUE of a new king were punished.
  • Therefore the Ndebele hated the settlers for refusing them a new king.


Natural disasters


  • In 1895 and 1896 swarms of locusts invaded the country and destroyed crops.
  • An unknown cattle disease called Rinderpest also killed cattle.
  • The ancestral spirits blamed drought, locusts and rinderpest on the misbehaviour of the Europeans and their agents.
  • Therefore the settlers had to be removed by force.



  • There was a general physical abuse of Africans in the country e.g. sjambocking in public for petty and trivial reasons.